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What does the "T" in T-Shirt Stand for?

The "T" in T-shirt refers to the garment's T-like shape when laid flat, with the body forming the vertical line and the sleeves creating the horizontal. This simple yet iconic design has transcended time, becoming a staple in wardrobes worldwide. How has the T-shirt evolved from its origins to a fashion statement? Join us as we explore its transformation.
Sheri Cyprus
Sheri Cyprus

A t-shirt has a straight body with sleeves at the top that make the form of the letter "t," hence the name "t-shirt." While similar types of cotton undershirts were worn prior to the t-shirt, they were all sleeveless varieties so were not really "t" shaped shirts, or t-shirts, at all. The United States Navy began having t-shirts made for sailors in 1913 because they wanted something underneath the sailors' jumpers that would cover chest hair.

Civilian men wore a sleeveless undergarment called a singlet. It wasn't until the late 30s that Hanes and Sears Roebuck produced the t-shirt for sale to civilians. Fruit of the Loom started to manufacture the t-shirt in 1938.

A t-shirt.
A t-shirt.

Sears offered a 24 cent t-shirt in 1938 designed like a sailor's undergarment. The shirt was called the "gob" shirt; gob was the popular slang term for a sailor in the United States Navy. The gob shirt was advertised by Sears as being suitable to wear as an outer garment rather than only as an undergarment.

When the Marines began to wear the white t-shirt as an outer garment, they soon realized they were too easy for the enemy to spot. Military men used to dye the t shirts with coffee grounds to make themselves better camouflaged. Soon after, standard green military t-shirts were developed and given to the Marines and then the Army.

A white cotton T-shirt.
A white cotton T-shirt.

Military testing was actually done with t-shirts to determine their appropriateness for military service. For example, some members of the military were issued t-shirts and asked for their comments when comparing them with the traditional sleeveless singlet. Most military members preferred the t-shirt shape for many reasons, for example, backpacks were more comfortable at the backs of the shoulders with the t-shirts on and the sleeves allowed for better sweat absorption. Also, the added sleeves protected shoulders from sunburn.

Tie-dyed t-shirts were popular in the 60s.
Tie-dyed t-shirts were popular in the 60s.

When Marlon Brando wore a form fitting t-shirt as an outer garment in "A Streetcar Named Desire," it caused quite a sensation. James Dean and Elvis also gave the t-shirt a sexy new look and the tighter style that showed the male body became very popular. The t-shirt was definitely a masculine piece of clothing until the 1950s when sporty t-shirts began to be worn by both sexes and were decorated with felt letters for school teams and clubs.

A woman wearing a modern t-shirt.
A woman wearing a modern t-shirt.

Tie-dyed t-shirts were popular in the 1960s and t-shirts printed with music and television stars were a hit in the 1970s. The basic "t" shape of the shirts stayed the same while necklines changed to scoop, vees, and the sleeves became long or mid-length. Soon the t shirt was available in variations such as designer-decorated with semi-precious stones. Inexpensive and comfortable, the t-shirt, sometimes also spelled tee shirt, remains a part of American culture today.

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Discussion Comments


@hyrax53, You bring up a good point. However, there are many brands in recent years that have started making fair trade t shirts, both simple wholesale and more unique t shirt styles. They can also be expensive, but for different reasons.


@sapphire12, Considering the t shirt's very wholesome beginnings, it has also become something of a symbol of the problems with the global economy. Many wholesale t shirts, and even some of the more upscale "designer" t shirts, are still produced in sweatshops overseas, rather than by people in the country that made them famous. These t shirts are then often sold to make as much profit as possible, often at anywhere for 15 to 25 dollars each for low-end fashion and up to 50 dollars or more for the luxury brands.


Retro t shirts have remained especially popular in fashion today, with many designers making new shirts that look old. It's interesting how many different variations people have come up with for an incredibly plain garment. T shirts are something of the blank canvas of fashion.

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    • A t-shirt.
      By: picsfive
      A t-shirt.
    • A white cotton T-shirt.
      By: Kayros Studio
      A white cotton T-shirt.
    • Tie-dyed t-shirts were popular in the 60s.
      By: flukesamed
      Tie-dyed t-shirts were popular in the 60s.
    • A woman wearing a modern t-shirt.
      By: dzimin
      A woman wearing a modern t-shirt.
    • Military testing found that T-shirts protected wearers from sunburn to the shoulders.
      By: Rostislav Sedlacek
      Military testing found that T-shirts protected wearers from sunburn to the shoulders.